The rapid advancement of quantum computing has led to an extensive demand for effective techniques to extract classical information from quantum systems, particularly in fields like quantum machine learning and quantum chemistry. However, quantum systems are inherently susceptible to noises, which adversely corrupt the information encoded in quantum systems. In this work, we introduce an efficient algorithm that can recover information from quantum states under Pauli noise. The core idea is to learn the necessary information of the unknown Pauli channel by post-processing the classical shadows of the channel. For a local and bounded-degree observable, only partial knowledge of the channel is required rather than its complete classical description to recover the ideal information, resulting in a polynomial-time algorithm. This contrasts with conventional methods such as probabilistic error cancellation, which requires the full information of the channel and exhibits exponential scaling with the number of qubits. We also prove that this scalable method is optimal on the sample complexity and generalise the algorithm to the weight contracting channel. Furthermore, we demonstrate the validity of the algorithm on the 1D anisotropic Heisenberg-type model via numerical simulations. As a notable application, our method can be severed as a sample-efficient error mitigation scheme for Clifford circuits.